MUSIC ARTICLES
  THE MUSIC SCHOOL, INC.
©2018 The Music School, Inc.
Music   Teacher   Expertise   is   a   Critical   Factor   in   Student   Learning. Research   indicates   that   teachers   of   all subjects   --   including   music   --   who   are   more   experienced   and   educated   are   more   effective   in   the   classroom. Consequently,   students   learn   more   from   them.(Source:   Paying   for   Public   Education:   New   Evidence   on   How and Why Money Matters, by Ronald Ferguson, 1991) Music   Students   Are   Scoring. Music   students   are   outperforming   non-music   students   on   the   Scholastic Aptitude   Test   (SAT).   College-bound   seniors   with   coursework   or   experience   in   music   performance   scored   52 points   higher   on   the   verbal   portion   and   37   points   higher   on   the   math   portion   of   the   SAT   than   students   with   no coursework or experience in the arts.(Source: The College Board, September 1997) Music   Is   Beating   Computers at   Enhancing   Early   Childhood   Development.   Music   training,   specifically   piano instruction,   is   far   superior   to   computer   instruction   in   dramatically   enhancing   children's   abstract   reasoning skills    necessary    for    learning    math    and    science.    Learning    music    at    an    early    age    causes    long-term enhancement    of    spatial-    temporal    reasoning.(Source:    Frances    Rauscher,    Ph.D.,    Gordon    Shaw,    Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, 1997) Music   Enhances   Linguistic   Skills .Music   --   specifically   song   --   is   one   of   the   best   training   grounds   for babies   learning   to   recognize   the   tones   that   add   up   to   spoken   language.(Source:   Sandra   Trehub,   University of Toronto, 1997) America   Is   A   Country   Full   Of   Music-Makers. 113   million,   or   53%,   of   Americans   over   the   age   of   12   are current   or   former   music   makers.(Source:   1997   "American   Attitudes   Towards   Music"   poll   conducted   by   the Gallup Organization) Americans   Say   Schools   Should   Offer   Instrumental   Music   Instruction as   part   of   the   regular   curriculum. 88%   of   respondents   indicated   this   in   a   1997   "American Attitudes   Towards   Music"   Gallup   poll.(Source:   Music Trades, September 1997) Scientists,   Therapists Agree:   Music   Heals   More   Than   Just   The   Spirit. Music   benefits   older   adults. Active music-making   positively   affects   the   biology   and   behavior   of Alzheimer's   patients.(Source:   Music   Making   and Wellness Project, a study conducted at the University of Miami) The   Window   Of   Opportunity   For   Studying   Music is   between   the   ages   of   three   and   ten.   This   is   the   time when we are the most receptive to and able to process music.(Source: Newsweek, February 19, 1996) Studying   Music   Strengthens   Students' Academic   Performance. Rhode   Island   studies   have   indicated   that sequential,   skill-building   instruction   in   art   and   music   integrated   with   the   rest   of   the   curriculum   can   greatly improve   children's   performance   in   reading   and   math.(Source:   "Learning   Improved   by Arts Training"   by   Martin Gardiner, Alan Fox, Faith Knowles, and Donna Jeffrey, Nature, May 23, 1996) Music   and   Spatial   Task   Performance: A   Causal   Relationship. Music   lessons,   and   even   simply   listening   to music,   can   enhance   spatial   reasoning   performance,   a   critical   higher-brain   function   necessary   to   perform complex   tasks   including   mathematics.(Source:   Frances   Fauscher,   Ph.D.,   Gordon   Shaw,   Ph.D.,   University   of California, Irvine, 1994) Music   Is   One   of   Our   Greatest   Economic   Exports. "The   arts   are   an   economic   plus   --   second   only   to aerospace   as   our   most   lucrative   national   export."(Source:   Michael   Greene   of   The   National   Academy   of Recording Arts and Sciences) Classical   Music's   Traditional   Audience   Is   Graying. By   the   year   2030,   approximately   half   of   our   nation's population   will   be   over   65   years   of   age.   Music   educators   have   the   power   to   make   Classical   music   matter again to young people.(Source: Chamber Music, February 1998; a publication of Chamber Music America) The   Mozart   Effect   Doesn't   Increase   General   Intelligence!   Best   Way   to Achieve   Long-Term   Benefits   is   by Music   Study   and   Music-Making.   The   “Mozart   Effect”,   reported   as   an   increase   of   intelligence   after   briefly listening   to   Mozart,   is   by   far   the   most   well-known   and   sensational   finding   in   music   research   in   the   public mind.   At   the   same   time,   it   is   the   most   misunderstood.   Trumpeted   in   the   mass   media   as   a   way   to   increase general intelligence, it does no such thing. Francis   Rauscher   and   Gordon   Shaw   first   reported   in   1993   that   10   minutes   of   listening   to   a   Mozart   sonata   for two   pianos   increased   the   ability   of   college   students   to   solve   spatial-temporal   problems.   For   example, subjects   had   to   imagine   that   a   single   sheet   of   paper   had   been   folded   several   times   in   certain   ways   and   then various   cuts   made   with   a   scissors.   They   had   to   then   predict   what   the   pattern   of   cut-outs   would   look   like when   the   paper   was   unfolded.   This   test   requires   mentally   keeping   track   of   the   sequence   of   events   in   space. Rauscher   and   Shaw   specifically   pointed   out   that   the   effect   lasted   only   10-15   minutes   and   worked   only   for spatial-temporal problems, not for other aspects of intelligence. The   public's   belief   of   long   term   effects   in   general   intelligence   was   fed   by   simplistic   reports   in   the   media combined   with   its   tendency   to   believe   in   “cognitive   bargains”,   i.e.,   getting   a   big   boost   in   mental   processes without   expending   much   effort.   The   Mozart   Effect   is   more   important   for   researchers   than   for   any   practical applications. Long term benefits from music are best achieved by intensive study and music-making. Music   Linked   to   Reduced   Criminality   Martin   Gardiner   of   Brown   University   recently   reported,   at   a   national arts   education   meeting   in   Oklahoma   City   ,   the   results   of   analyzing   a   large   scale   data   base.   The   data   base included   information   gathered   over   a   period   of   many   years   for   more   than   a   thousand   residents   of   Rhode Island   .   Tracking   people   from   birth   through   the   age   of   thirty,   Gardiner   checked   the   relationship   between arrest records of teen-agers and their degree of involvement in music. Gardiner   found   that   the   greater   the   involvement   in   music,   the   lower   the   arrest   record.   Teens   who   had   music education   were   less   likely   to   get   into   trouble   than   students   who   didn't.   However,   those   who   also   were involved   in   playing   a   musical   instrument   had   even   fewer   brushes   with   the   law.   Those   who   had   the   most experience,    including    good    sight-reading    ability,    had    a    negligible    arrest    record.    This    research,    still    in progress, was funded by the International Foundation for Music Research (IFMR). Musical   Brain   -   Special   Brain   Area   DIscovered   for   Reading   Music   Scores   Music   is   wrongly   considered to   be   mere   entertainment   and   often   regarded   as   an   educational   frill.   However,   research   has   shown   that humans   are   born   with   musical   capabilities,   so   music   is   part   of   human   nature.   This   is   particularly   evident   in research   that   has   shown   how   the   human   brain   processes   music.   Recently,   neuroscientists   have   discovered an area in the brain that is devoted to reading music scores. T.   Nakada   and   his   co-workers   at   the   University   of   California   and   the   Niigata   Brain   Research   Institute   in Japan   applied   brain-imaging   techniques   to   people   who   could   read   a   musical   score.   They   compared   brain activity   during   score   reading   and   also   during   reading   language.   Reporting   in   the   journal   NeuroReport   (1998), Nakada   and   colleagues   found   regions   of   the   brain   that   were   involved   in   both   types   of   reading.   However, most   importantly,   they   also   discovered   a   brain   area   that   was   activated   only   during   reading   musical   scores. This   is   near   the   visual   part   of   the   brain   in   the   right   hemisphere.   The   findings   reveal   that   the   human   brain   is specialized for music and therefore the human brain is a “musical brain”.
MUSIC ARTICLES
©2018 The Music School, Inc.
Music    Teacher    Expertise    is    a    Critical    Factor    in    Student Learning. Research    indicates    that    teachers    of    all    subjects    -- including   music   --   who   are   more   experienced   and   educated   are more   effective   in   the   classroom.   Consequently,   students   learn   more from   them.(Source:   Paying   for   Public   Education:   New   Evidence   on How and Why Money Matters, by Ronald Ferguson, 1991) Music   Students   Are   Scoring. Music   students   are   outperforming non-music   students   on   the   Scholastic Aptitude   Test   (SAT).   College- bound   seniors   with   coursework   or   experience   in   music   performance scored   52   points   higher   on   the   verbal   portion   and   37   points   higher on   the   math   portion   of   the   SAT   than   students   with   no   coursework   or experience    in    the    arts.(Source:    The    College    Board,    September 1997) Music     Is     Beating     Computers at     Enhancing     Early     Childhood Development.   Music   training,   specifically   piano   instruction,   is   far superior     to     computer     instruction     in     dramatically     enhancing children's   abstract   reasoning   skills   necessary   for   learning   math   and science.    Learning    music    at    an    early    age    causes    long-term enhancement    of    spatial-    temporal    reasoning.(Source:    Frances Rauscher,    Ph.D.,    Gordon    Shaw,    Ph.D.,    University    of    California, Irvine, 1997) Music   Enhances   Linguistic   Skills .Music   --   specifically   song   --   is one   of   the   best   training   grounds   for   babies   learning   to   recognize   the tones   that   add   up   to   spoken   language.(Source:   Sandra   Trehub, University of Toronto, 1997) America   Is   A   Country   Full   Of   Music-Makers. 113   million,   or   53%, of   Americans    over    the    age    of    12    are    current    or    former    music makers.(Source:    1997    "American    Attitudes    Towards    Music"    poll conducted by the Gallup Organization) Americans    Say    Schools    Should    Offer    Instrumental    Music Instruction as   part   of   the   regular   curriculum.   88%   of   respondents indicated   this   in   a   1997   "American Attitudes   Towards   Music"   Gallup poll.(Source: Music Trades, September 1997) Scientists,   Therapists   Agree:   Music   Heals   More   Than   Just   The Spirit. Music   benefits   older   adults.   Active   music-making   positively affects   the   biology   and   behavior   of   Alzheimer's   patients.(Source: Music    Making    and    Wellness    Project,    a    study    conducted    at    the University of Miami) The   Window   Of   Opportunity   For   Studying   Music is   between   the ages   of   three   and   ten.   This   is   the   time   when   we   are   the   most receptive    to    and    able    to    process    music.(Source:    Newsweek, February 19, 1996) Studying         Music         Strengthens         Students'        Academic Performance. Rhode   Island   studies   have   indicated   that   sequential, skill-building   instruction   in   art   and   music   integrated   with   the   rest   of the    curriculum    can    greatly    improve    children's    performance    in reading   and   math.(Source:   "Learning   Improved   by Arts   Training"   by Martin    Gardiner,    Alan    Fox,    Faith    Knowles,    and    Donna    Jeffrey, Nature, May 23, 1996) Music       and       Spatial       Task       Performance:       A       Causal Relationship. Music   lessons,   and   even   simply   listening   to   music, can   enhance   spatial   reasoning   performance,   a   critical   higher-brain function      necessary      to      perform      complex      tasks      including mathematics.(Source:    Frances    Fauscher,    Ph.D.,    Gordon    Shaw, Ph.D., University of California, Irvine, 1994) Music   Is   One   of   Our   Greatest   Economic   Exports. "The   arts   are an   economic   plus   --   second   only   to   aerospace   as   our   most   lucrative national   export."(Source:   Michael   Greene   of   The   National Academy of Recording Arts and Sciences) Classical   Music's   Traditional   Audience   Is   Graying. By   the   year 2030,   approximately   half   of   our   nation's   population   will   be   over   65 years   of   age.   Music   educators   have   the   power   to   make   Classical music    matter    again    to    young    people.(Source:    Chamber    Music, February 1998; a publication of Chamber Music America) The   Mozart   Effect   Doesn't   Increase   General   Intelligence!   Best Way   to   Achieve   Long-Term   Benefits   is   by   Music   Study   and   Music- Making.   The   “Mozart   Effect”,   reported   as   an   increase   of   intelligence after   briefly   listening   to   Mozart,   is   by   far   the   most   well-known   and sensational   finding   in   music   research   in   the   public   mind.   At   the same   time,   it   is   the   most   misunderstood.   Trumpeted   in   the   mass media   as   a   way   to   increase   general   intelligence,   it   does   no   such thing. Francis   Rauscher   and   Gordon   Shaw   first   reported   in   1993   that   10 minutes   of   listening   to   a   Mozart   sonata   for   two   pianos   increased   the ability   of   college   students   to   solve   spatial-temporal   problems.   For example,   subjects   had   to   imagine   that   a   single   sheet   of   paper   had been   folded   several   times   in   certain   ways   and   then   various   cuts made   with   a   scissors.   They   had   to   then   predict   what   the   pattern   of cut-outs   would   look   like   when   the   paper   was   unfolded.   This   test requires   mentally   keeping   track   of   the   sequence   of   events   in   space. Rauscher   and   Shaw   specifically   pointed   out   that   the   effect   lasted only   10-15   minutes   and   worked   only   for   spatial-temporal   problems, not for other aspects of intelligence. The   public's   belief   of   long   term   effects   in   general   intelligence   was fed   by   simplistic   reports   in   the   media   combined   with   its   tendency   to believe   in   “cognitive   bargains”,   i.e.,   getting   a   big   boost   in   mental processes    without    expending    much    effort.    The    Mozart    Effect    is more   important   for   researchers   than   for   any   practical   applications. Long   term   benefits   from   music   are   best   achieved   by   intensive   study and music-making. Music   Linked   to   Reduced   Criminality   Martin   Gardiner   of   Brown University   recently   reported,   at   a   national   arts   education   meeting   in Oklahoma   City   ,   the   results   of   analyzing   a   large   scale   data   base. The   data   base   included   information   gathered   over   a   period   of   many years    for    more    than    a    thousand    residents    of    Rhode    Island    . Tracking    people    from    birth    through    the    age    of    thirty,    Gardiner checked   the   relationship   between   arrest   records   of   teen-agers   and their degree of involvement in music. Gardiner   found   that   the   greater   the   involvement   in   music,   the   lower the   arrest   record.   Teens   who   had   music   education   were   less   likely to   get   into   trouble   than   students   who   didn't.   However,   those   who also   were   involved   in   playing   a   musical   instrument   had   even   fewer brushes    with    the    law.    Those    who    had    the    most    experience, including   good   sight-reading   ability,   had   a   negligible   arrest   record. This   research,   still   in   progress,   was   funded   by   the   International Foundation for Music Research (IFMR). Musical    Brain    -    Special    Brain   Area    DIscovered    for    Reading Music     Scores     Music     is     wrongly     considered     to     be     mere entertainment   and   often   regarded   as   an   educational   frill.   However, research   has   shown   that   humans   are   born   with   musical   capabilities, so   music   is   part   of   human   nature.   This   is   particularly   evident   in research   that   has   shown   how   the   human   brain   processes   music. Recently,   neuroscientists   have   discovered   an   area   in   the   brain   that is devoted to reading music scores. T.   Nakada   and   his   co-workers   at   the   University   of   California   and   the Niigata    Brain    Research    Institute    in    Japan    applied    brain-imaging techniques    to    people    who    could    read    a    musical    score.    They compared    brain    activity    during    score    reading    and    also    during reading   language.   Reporting   in   the   journal   NeuroReport   (1998), Nakada    and    colleagues    found    regions    of    the    brain    that    were involved   in   both   types   of   reading.   However,   most   importantly,   they also   discovered   a   brain   area   that   was   activated   only   during   reading musical   scores.   This   is   near   the   visual   part   of   the   brain   in   the   right hemisphere. The   findings   reveal   that   the   human   brain   is   specialized for music and therefore the human brain is a “musical brain”.
THE MUSIC SCHOOL,  INC.